Free sex organizations
Since the world’s great religion scholars can’t agree on what a religion is, it’s absurd to ask a bunch of accountants, no matter how well-meaning.You can read part of the IRS’s guidelines for what’s a bona fide religion here; suffice it to say that it has an easier time saying what’s not a religion.
Many of these groups are run by women involved with sex work. Mc Elroy, Wendy, XXX: A Woman’s Right to Pornography. But whatever its intentions, today it’s a mess, for several reasons.First, the religious exemption has forced the IRS to decide what’s a religion, and thus has entangled church and state in the worst way.The Salvation Army has established housing facilities around the globe, providing long-term housing for destitute individuals and families as the necessary resources to get these families living independently.The Salvation Army housing facility in Westwood is unique in both the resident population and the facility arrangement.James Infirmary (San Francisco, CA) Women With a Vision (NOLA) Persist Health Project (NY, NY) Red Umbrella Project Emi Koyama (a great collection of presentation from independent researcher re: sex work and ‘anti-trafficking’ legislation) The Sex Workers Project Harm Reduction Coalition (check out publications/ free trainings held in NYC) Drug Policy Alliance (real facts about drug use/ America’s “war on drugs”) Erowid (a non-profit that provides information on all commonly used psychoactive substances) Alexander, Priscilla (1995). & Priscilla Alexander (1995), “Female Sex Workers: Scapegoats in the AIDS Epidemic,” in A O’Leary & LS Jemmott (eds.), Women at Risk: Issues in the Primary Prevention of AIDS. Delacoste, Frederique, and Priscilla Alexander (1987).
“Sex Workers Fight Against AIDS: An International Perspective,” in Beth E. Sex Workers Unite: A History of the Movement from Stonewall to Slut Walk.
Freedom of association cases are interesting in that they bring into conflict two competing views of the world: rights-oriented liberalism that holds that a person's identity comes from individual choices (and that government ought to create a framework of laws that remove barriers to choice) and communitarianism, that holds that a person's identity comes from the communities of which an individual is a part (and that communities are an important buffer between the government and the individual).
The leading case on the right of an association to establish and apply its own membership rules is the 1984 case of Roberts v. In Roberts, the Court recognized that the power to determine its own membership is central to the free speech rights of expressive organizations.
Justice O'Connor, in a concurring opinion, found that the Jaycees were a commercial organization and therefore subject to state regualtion of its membership.
On the other hand, according to O'Connor, a predominately expressive association has an absolute right to determine its own membership.
(Imagine how the speech of the Jewish Anti-Defamation League might be affected if it could be forced to admit as members anti-Semites.) Nonetheless, the Court in Roberts upheld a Minnesota public accomodations law requiring the Jaycees to admit women as members, in contravention of that organization's rules.